Wednesday, June 22, 2011

String and SuperString Theory





Chapter
10
String and Super String Theory

Death and Resurrection


S
tring Theory reminds us of the Phoenix because it was practically a corpse a few years ago and has recently come back to life with greater vigor. Surprisingly this time, it would appear to be coming to life at the hands of Trotsky under his intellectual influence: The permanent revolution!

This "New generation of physicists sustains a Permanent Revolution," [1] which means that the other physicists were counter-revolutionary and directed, analogously, by Lenin.

If we look at History, this new generation of revolutionary physicist will fail as Trotsky failed, but fortunately or unfortunately, Lenin's dreams also end in failure.

That this new generation of physicist is revolutionary is only a euphemistic claim regarding their own theories, not the theories of others. That is, their own theories are permitted to be revolutionary, but they will never accept that theories of another could be revolutionary. Especially when other theories contradict their fantastic ideas, as is the case with AD.

When they receive a truly revolutionary concept, such as AD, that turns physics around and returns it to common sense, they react with furious opposition, indifference, trivial comments (See [REFERENCE]), denunciations, or poisoned expressions.

In effect "Conventional Wisdom" is not allowed to succeed due to the stubborn support of a paradigm that has nothing left to offer and is proved largely erroneous by experimental results and astronomical observations.

It is interesting to see how one of those revolutionaries spins High Energy Physics (HEP) into his own web of logic.

Even though he [2] believes in the future of HEP, he says: "Among the many crimes of the bourgeois overlords of HEP and their running dog lackeys is to have allowed the misapprehension among students (and the public) that particle physics is almost done."

This is evidently not completely true, because many projects at CERN are unwittingly developing the production of gravitons by smashing ultra energetic beams of particles.  It is also part of the Autodynamicist’s vision to develop a technology that, imitating the Stars, will produce Pico-Gravitons in the lab, for use as Spacecraft propulsion for exploring space beyond our solar system.

He argues logically that our "Scientific Community" represents the counter-revolution, but we have no doubt that he would react disapprovingly were he presented with the New Revolution of Autodynamics. Typically, and probably in the spirit of the Latin proverb "Do as I say, not as I do", his position of revolutionary, would soon become counter-revolutionary!

He is also correct to be "tired of hearing some of his own colleagues lament that this centuries-long pursuit had run out of intellectual steam and was coming to an end."

This is absolutely true. All the intellectuals of this centuries-long pursuit are sunk in a religious attitude regarding SR/GR: Einstein is a demigod!  He doesn't say this clearly, because if he projected a shadow directly onto SR/GR, which is the real intellectual activities of Physics in this century, no one would listen to what he is saying!  Pointing out that Einstein is wrong provokes a furious even weird reaction, and no one wants to hear a word regarding a New Paradigm: Autodynamics.

By way of analysis of the article by G Johnson and other papers by S Mukki and J. H. Schwang, we will try to give a simple explanation of Super String Theory.

If somebody asks; what is String Theory? The answer could be: It is the theory that wants to show that the Universe starts from a string.

"Thus string theory certainly is a model of elementary particles." [3]

"Researchers studying the equations of string theory soon discovered a wealth of surprises. First of all, among the particles arising as vibrations of the string, we find some which are very similar to electrons, muons, neutrinos and quarks, known matter particles."

Contrarily, we think that the surprise is that we never obtain particles from a guitar, even from the guitar played by Andres Segovia [4] or form the Pablo Casals’ cello or the Paganini’s violin.

Vibrating strings yield particles! (We can now understand clearly Richard Feynman said: String theory makes no sense)  The first problem is; who provided the string? We have the same problem regarding the Big Bang. There, we had the Forces of Evil to light
the match that provoked the explosion of the Singularity, but here, in the case of the string, we have no Forces of Evil to manufacture the string!

Of course, some people ask; why doesn't the Universe start from a beam? Other people ask a simpler question; what if the Universe doesn't start from anything and is simply eternal, and consequently wasn't born and will not die?

Of course, you have to be a heretic to ask such simple questions, and a furious "Conventional Wisdom" will eye you with disdain or will simply ignore you. The logic is simple: The Universe is born from a String, not from a beam, and it is not eternal!

Why do you imagine so many "scientists," "scientific writers" and "scientific magazines" are spreading such fantastic stories? They do this for a living!

Who cares that AD can explain decay without resorting to the fantastic ghostly neutrinos?
Who cares that AD shows that the Lorentz transform is mathematically correct but physically incorrect?
Who cares that SR is incorrect because it uses Lorentz's equations physically incorrectly to derive the SR equations?
Who cares that Richard Feynman's opinion is that String Theory makes no sense?
Who cares that String Theory is telling us the same old Tale called the Big Bang? (Creationism).
Does the String create matter and energy, simultaneously placing this stuff inside the Singularity that, upon exploding creates the Universe?
Did the Universe start from a "Singularity" or was the Universe formed from a "String"? Was the "String" inside the "Singularity? Putting this together doesn't make sense! The "Scientific Community" will hold you reprehensible if you say so!

Primitive societies had sorcerers, and now Modern Science has Sorcerers at Stanford, MIT, Harvard, Cal-Tech, Princeton, etc. There are also sorcerers in the newspapers and magazines scientific columns.

The last hurrah of the "Scientific Community" is the String Theory or Super String Theory, or the Theory of Everything.

We will take a closer look at String Theory, following Prof. John H. Schwarz at California Institute of Technology. [5] His title relates to our subtitle for the chapter:

"The Second Superstring Revolution."

His first paragraph is interesting:

"Once upon a time string theory was regarded as a passing phase in Physics. Now the field is booming more than ever before, as deep mathematics welded by string theorists have given us insights into black hole thermodynamics while telling us that string themselves may not be the whole story."

What he doesn't say is that after the next New Boom of String Theory the next author will write exactly the same thing:  Once upon a time the Second Superstring Revolution was regarded as another passing phase in Physics!

Of course the author, Professor Schwarz, cannot realize that all those tales are only parts of the same Intellectual Failure of this century. Fortunately, all these failures were compensated partially by the powerful advance of experimental research, even though part of the "Scientific Community" stubbornly deceived them in trying to detect Neutrinos for 70 years and in stubbornly rejecting the AD solution that stops the febrile fantasies introduced into Physics.

He analyzes various scientific steps of the 20th century, spuriously treating uncertainties as though there were no doubts about them.

Regarding General Relativity section, he says:

"It predicted that light from a distant star passing near to the limb of the sun would be bent by a small but measurable angle"

We need to be very careful with the word "predicted." A theory, in order to have the capacity to "predict", needs to have a physical mechanism that can explain the phenomenon. Unfortunately, people often treat SR or GR predictions as though only they possess this capacity. This is not so. Classical Mechanics, the Newtonian concept, and AD possess mechanisms to explain the same phenomenon.

SR accepts these predictions at least while giving a different value than Newton.
Regarding mechanisms, Newton's concept has a pure mechanical action, but the GR conception really has no mechanism, as its gravitation is only space-time curvature!

The Newtonian prediction was calculated by J. G. Von Soldner in 1878, prompted by Laplace's work as being 0.875 seconds in the case of the Sun.
GR originally calculated the same value in 1911, even though later, in November 1915, Einstein doubled the first value to 1.75 seconds, apparently confirmed by Eddington in Spanish Guinea in 1919. Regarding Professor Schwarz’s comment, "other predictions of the theory - such as the existence of black holes and of gravitational radiation have been confirmed much more recently", is simply not true!  Black Holes have never been confirmed and gravitational radiation only exists in the minds of the Super-Scientists, because they confound Stellar decay by Radiation with "gravitational radiation".  That is only an invention without any experimental or observational evidence.

It is interesting that he cannot see his own contradiction. In the next paragraph he says:

"The idea is that gravity is a manifestation of the curvature of space-time"

Does this mean that "gravitational radiation" is space-time radiation or the "curvature" is losing radiation?

Which came first, the chicken or the egg?

If a body loses mass by radiation, its mass will be smaller and the space curvature that it will induce is smaller, and so too its gravitation.
But gravitational radiation has no meaning in GR!  What is emitted -- curvature?

This only has meaning in AD, where gravitation is a mechanical action produced by graviton absorption transferring its momentum to matter.

Even though the following is not directly related to String Theory, we will mention it to prove that spurious concepts accepted as proven beyond doubt are constantly handed off.

In the Special Relativity section, he pointed out the following, regarding the Galilean and SR velocity sum equation:

"Einstein resolved this paradox by recognizing that Galilean invariance is just an approximation, valid for speeds much smaller that the speed of light. The principles that apply for all speeds are embodied in the special theory of relativity. In this theory, the rule for the addition of velocities is:

v' = (v + u)/ (1 - vu/c^2)

where c denotes the speed of light."

What he doesn't say or he doesn't know is that this equation is also erroneous when it is applied to the real World, the dynamic Universe. The Einsteinian equation is only a Kinematical equation, which means, a virtual mathematical point in motion without mass and consequently without energy, something that doesn't exist in Nature!
Nevertheless, the equation is applied to real mechanical phenomena and in this case it is very easy to show that the SR equation is wrong. It is very easy to show that calculating energy with the SR equation for Mechanical phenomena - Kinetic Energy and Mass - will yield a value that is different from what is calculated using the velocity sum equation. This is also erroneous for Classical Mechanics when the phenomena are "related" through the relativistic conception.

Though the AD equation is given in Chapter 1, we repeat it here to facilitate comparison:


                                          v = {1 – [(1- v12) (1- v22)]}1/2


In the "Quantum Field Theory" section, he says:

"The framework in which quantum mechanics and special relativity are successfully reconciled is called quantum field theory. It is based on three basic principles; two of them, of course, are quantum mechanics and special relativity. The third one, which I wish to emphasize, is the postulate that elementary particles are point-like objects of zero intrinsic size. In practice, they are smeared over a region of space due to quantum effects, but their description in the basic equations is as mathematical points."

Of course, to "postulate that elementary particles are point-like objects of zero intrinsic mass" is wrong.

"In practice they are smeared over a region of space due to quantum effects ..."

Here we can ask again: which came first, the chicken or the egg?

It is absolutely false that a "quantum effect smears the particles in a region of space." Particles in Nature are not point-like objects! All particles in Nature occupy space!
The mathematical representation has no size or volume, but this doesn't imply that the particle doesn't occupy a volume in space, because in practice all known particles are complex entities formed from the same primeval particle, a fundamental particle in Nature that constructs the Universe. Our ignorance of that particle doesn't authorize us to create confusion in our minds, or to build false conceptions.
Without delving into how, for the moment, AD postulates a primeval particle called the Pico-Graviton. It has no rest mass energy, because it cannot decay, or be divided; it has no electric charge, no magnetic properties, no spin, and no notion of coupling.

To jump from a point-like object to a string makes no sense at all, because it is as arbitrary as to jump to a beam or another object. Also, a "vibrating string" giving a wave-form reminds us of the Quantum Wave Mechanics (QWM), developed around 1920-30 using the wave function that drove many scientists, specially Dirac, to find an equation that explains the Bohr Atom almost perfectly.

String Theory smells consequently like Quantum Wave Mechanics, which failed to make progress in explaining additional phenomena.

While QWM was developed to explain the Bohr's atom, String Theory is another creationist theory that is not trying to explain any real phenomena. Its goal is to create mathematical rules that the Universe must follow.
Of course, the Universe simply does not reflect the paranoiac theories and Creationist inventions plagued with the fantasies described by this purported historical step for the Human Race!

It is relevant to point out the following. In the section "String Theory of the Strong Nuclear Force" he says:

"One curious fact about string theory in the 1968-73 period is that it took two years studying various complicated mathematical formulas before several people realized that these were formulas describing the interactions of extended one-dimensional objects, which were named "strings." Once this was realized, it becomes clear that this type of theory was outside the framework of conventional quantum field theory, which as we have emphasized, is based on point-like elementary particles."

This simply means that they wrote equations as a mathematical exercise without any physical meaning and without any understanding of what they were really doing!

They call this science, and they want us to take this seriously! This is not a scientifically legitimate way, and could be one reason that Richard Feynman qualified this as nonsense and paranoid!

It would be naïve to claim: ".... Several people realized that these were formulas describing the interactions of extended one-dimensional objects, which were named "strings."

Of course, those "one-dimensional" objects don't exist in Nature, just as those "point-like elementary particles" don't exist in Nature!

They insist on working with what makes no sense!

In the section "Superstring Unification", we can read some more nonsense that culminates the paranoia:

"One could imagine that, as a consequence of the dynamics, the extra six dimensions form a small compact space attached to each point in ordinary four-dimensional space-time. If the size of the extra dimensions is sufficiently small, there would be no conflict with observations."

Great! The paranoia is legitimized; we can now avoid conflict with real observations! If you cannot see anything, the theory is confirmed! And these people call themselves "scientists" and String Theory a revolution in Physics!!

This remains me of another similar “Ghost” story. If you send “Neutrinos” through matter, but at the end of it you don’t detect anything, the “Neutrino’s Oscillation” is confirmed!
 Of course, the truth is, you didn’t send anything and you detected nothing!

In the next section, "The First Superstring Revolution" is a demented confirmation of the ravings of the section preceding it:

"In 1984-85 there was a series of discoveries [4] that convinced many theorists that superstring theory is a very promising approach to unification. Almost overnight, the subject was transformed from an intellectual backwater to one of the most active areas of theoretical physics, which it has remained ever since."

We had the first revolution, then the second and permanent revolution! And this last permanent revolution is a very dangerous one because its intellectual leader is Trotsky!

Is it time to call the FBI or the CIA?

Is it time to show that those revolutions don't really exist and are only in the brains of a few self-proclaimed scientists!

Of course, answering the two questions affirmatively, we get the correct answer, especially if we replace the FBI and CIA by the Universities' authority. It is time to stop the continuous intellectual failures, such as the Neutrino paranoia, the String Theory paranoia, the Big Bang paranoia and all their sequels [6] that are dragging the Science of Physics to a depth that is very damaging and dangerous for the mental functioning of our Modern Society.

This is String Theory, Super-String Theory or what we could call, in short, Modern Paranoia.

Now we can return to the beginning of this article to better analyze the Permanent revolution.

"Trotsky was right," Dr. Lykken proclaimed.

"In fact, high-energy physics is exciting and will remain exciting precisely because it exists in a state of permanent revolution."

Of course, this permanent revolution is not real. Any new revolution in Science, especially related to fundamental knowledge such as Physics, is given by a New Paradigm and each New Paradigm generally represents a "jump" regarding current insight. Nevertheless it is true that experimental and observational evidence contribute constantly to help give birth to a new conception, that is, a new theory that will replace the historically accepted one.

In the case of SR/GR, new equations replaced Newton’s equations 300 years later, and AD follows 40 years after SR and 35 years after GR, especially if we consider gravitation.

To believe that it is possible to maintain a permanent revolution is a naïve idea, a wish that is practically impossible.

Strictly speaking, Trotsky's Permanent Revolution only extended the Russian Revolution to a few other countries.

Each revolution needs a process of incubation (hatching), that is, it requires many complicated steps extended over time.

The Author of the article says:

"After years of impasse, the study of subatomic particles has been undergoing something of a renaissance"

This is not true. The hatching process is constant, but many discoveries pass unseen and not accepted by the "Scientific Community", or are simply ignored or condemned by ignorant reviewers, leading to censorship, as has happened with AD in the last 65 years.

An important milestone regarding the Neutrino was reached by AD in 1945, with the AD derivation that explains the RaE experimental result without resorting to neutrinos.

Carezani's paper suffered a censorship by a stupid reviewer of the Argentinean Magazine, by governmental scientific institutes, and by the Physics Society.

The “Scientific Community” does not know the solution, but the hatching process that invokes the next revolution also started at this same point.

The Neutrino FANTASY continues to grow fiercely, into a universal competition, faster than the Grand Prix, around the World. This competition has reached paranoiac levels, even though many simple experiments show without any doubt the Electron-Neutrino doesn't exist. One example is presented in Physics Review.  [7]
The Super String FANTASY will follow, exactly, the same road.













[1].- By George Johnson, “The New York Times,” June 20, 2000. 
[2].- Dr. Joseph Lykken, a particle physicist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, on footnote 1
[3].- Sunil Mukhi, TATA Institute of Fundamental Physics, Bombay India.
http://theory.tifr.res.in/~mukhi/Physics/string.html

[4] .- Andres Segovia (2-21-1893-6-4-1987), the Spanish’s musician was one of the paramount concert artists in the twenty-century. Segovia can be compared to similarly influential performers as Again (Violin), Liszt (Piano), Casals (Cello) and Landowska (Harpsichord).
[5].-   “The Second Superstring Revolution” by Prof. John H. Schwarz, California Institute of Technology. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/jhs/string/intro.html
[6].- The neutrino case is a barrier to progress with a new theory of relativity (AD) and is an incredible drain on money. The Big Bang with the Universal Expansion, Black Holes, Worm Holes, White Holes, etc., and String Theory create a false perspective in many young students.

[7].- W. W.Buechner and R. J. Van de Graaff, Phys. Rev. 70, 174(1946)