Sunday, June 26, 2011

The Light Propagation and the Aether.


The Light Propagation and the Aether (Ether)

2-9 The Light Velocity Problem (c).

The problem of c is rooted three centuries ago on the wave nature of light in the refraction by Huygen (1629-1695) and the reflection by Young (1773-1829) and supported by the special nature of light in the Maxwell equations (1831-1879) and in the Lorentz (1853-1928) transformation.

This conception automatically created the “ether”, the most marvelous and miraculous continue substance never again conceived by the human intellect, with the most fantastic rigidness to transmit vibrations as rapid as 10^19 cycle per second and possessing the most negligible density. Perhaps, by knowing our motion through so perfect material, we could understand it a little better.

Michelson (1852-1931) and Morley (1838-1923), using the Michelson interferometer conceive such experiment, thinking to measure the Earth spinning motion and its orbital motion around the Sun.
The experiment was negative in the sense that was impossible to measure the “ether wind” or any change in the light velocity that seem to be constant, independent of the direction of motion with respect to the ether. The “ether” was not found. As a result of this experiment the second postulate of relativity took its place, section 1-5-2, in the SR new conception about systems in relative motion.

The Aether non-existent most conclusive confirmation is given by the Stellar Aberration.

2-9-1 The problem of c.

The ether disappear but the constancy of c and its apparent “specialness” create a new fantasy.

From AD point of view, c has not anything special: It is the light velocity in vacuum, with the same relevance that the velocity of the Orient Express. If c has something special is that it is the coefficient, discovery by Einstein, that applied to the rest mass of a particle convert this into energy. And what is the most important, the values are experimentally confirmed. As will be possible to see later, this could be an historical point of view, because for AD this velocity could be surpassed in other superluminic phenomenon. c has nothing special inside the SR’s and AD’s equations. If c is larger than our actual c, the quantity of energy that will be possible to get from a particle rest mass only will be bigger than the actual energy.(See Appendix 10, on Particle Propellant). From the AD point of view a new kind of energy is possible to get from any particle’s rest  mass.

2-9-2 The Superluminic Velocity.

Apparently there are many physical reasons to expect for a superluminic velocity. The Quantum Mechanics - and especially the modern experimental evidence regarding electrons - describe phenomena (Photons Entaglement) where  the transmission of information with a velocity larger than c, the light velocity, is a required condition to explain the phenomenon. The phenomenon of gravity with his action-at-a-distance seem also to involve  a velocity larger than c. U. J. Balis, working with AD concepts in gravitation, from the Cosmology point of view, arrive to the conclusion that the Pico-Graviton, from the Carezani’s Universal Gravitation, is traveling in vacuum at a velocity 

            ν = e(π/p)                (1)

(e = Base of natural logarithms, p = constant of absorption between 0 an 1)

that give a value around 27 times c.

Carezani, working  empirically found a value of 27 times c, which gives a reasonable energy per cubic centimeter, as gravitational energy in the vacuum space, regarding the “”dark matter”” apparently needed for the today Cosmology.

As AD constantly shows, the question regarding Superluminal velocity will be resolved by calculation using values given by observational evidence or experimentally.

Ultimately, a direct Pico-Graviton velocity measurement will be reached.

The observation of JETs emitted at Superluminal velocity[1] by many stellar bodies in the Cosmos will be confirmed without any doubt. The Superluminal velocity was also shown in Labs by the Tunneling Effect,[2] and the “communication” between Electrons and Photons.[3] And the Cesium experiment. [4]

2-9-3 Creation of Superluminic Speed.

Applying the AD principle of energy absorption-mass decay, it may be possible to augment the energy of photons at light speed, creating a particle that decays to yield superluminic photons.

[1].- R. C. Vermuelen and M. H. Cohen, “Superluminal Motion and Cosmology,” The Astrophysical Journal, 430:467-494, 1994 August 1. In Table 1, a Compilation of Internal Proper Motion lists 66 extragalactic sources with multiepoch observation with a maximum at 26 c.

[2].-  R. Y. Chiao, P. G. Kwiat and A. M. Steinberg, Physic. Rev. A, 47, 2472(1993).

[3].- Mark Buchanan, New Scientist, 28 June 1997, “Light’s spooky connections set distance record.”